Beside the “natural” darkening process, teeth can be very easily discolouring because of the amazingly big amount of colouring agents which come to the oral cavity. Coffee, tea, coke, red wine, and different refreshers all contain such colouring agents, which very “effectively” contribute to discolouring. Smoking has also a similar effect.
Discolouring has different levels, sometimes it is quite superficial but often the deeper layers of the enamel are also affected. These general colouring agents have an effect on every tooth, they discolour each tooth. When endodontia or root filling is applied during the dental treatment, the treated tooth usually discolours. Of course there is a possibility for bleaching procedures which the dentist applies for only the discoloured tooth.
The bleaching material comes between the enamel layers and resorbs the pigments which caused the stain. It also contains substances which help the enamel structure to evolve again in place of the resorbed pigments, furthermore this material contains fluorine with the help of which the enamel will grow stronger and more resistant against further negative impacts.
It is important to mention that only teeth can be bleached, not fillings, crowns and prosthesises! After the bleaching procedure fillings must be changed according to the new tone. Before the bleaching process a full oral hygienic treatment is needed, during which we are scaling all the materials (plaques, tartar) and clearable stain from your teeth. Bleaching should be done only in fully rehabilitated oral cavities in terms of oral hygiene!
Before starting bleaching, we often use a machine called Prophyflex, which is a sand-blast apparatus. This machine blows a mixture of very fine sand and water on the surface of the tooth which becomes flat this way and the surface stain disappears. Its great advantage is that it can pierce into the interdentium, and so there will be no need for chemical bleaching.
The tooth surfaces prepared with this apparatus are much easily permeated by the whitening gel, so the result can be reached faster. The bleaching set includes the splint prepared by us i.e. our dental technician, a hypodermic syringe with the whitening gel, and a tooth paste which should be used during the bleaching.
Before preparing the bleaching splint we are taking an impression from the teeth, on the basis of which the dental technician prepares a soft plastic splint, which suits very accurately. The accurate application and extension of the splint is very important because the gel should only touch with the teeth and not with the gum.
The whitening gel should be poured into this flexible form and so should the whole be put on the row of teeth. It is advised to be used at night, because it is important that the splint should constantly remain on its place at least for 3-4 hours. We inform our patients about the usage of splints and the accurate dosage of the gel in a detailed way.
Whitening gels have a different concentration. The more concentrated ones have of course a faster effect, but after the treatment a high level of tooth sensitivity can occur. Therefore we prefer less concentrated gels with slower effect, causing a lower level of post-treatment sensitivity.
With a bleaching done in our surgery the intended effect can be reached only in 1-2 hours but then the above mentioned effect can occur. When using a gel with normal (10-15%) concentration, this negative effect is not likely to come up. This gel is suitable to use at home and after approximately 8 nights the intended result can be reached. The whiteness acquired with this method lasts for approximately 2-3 years.
Porcelain veneers can be used when the aesthetic correction of the teeth is needed in case of a high rate of discolouring or not satisfactory bleaching procedure. When there is bigger filling in the front tooth, using a veneer is not advisable, rather a crown shall be made.
When preparing the veneer the tooth should be minimally prepared, there should be a shoulder preparation, and then an impression should be taken about the shaped surface of the tooth. Based on this impression the technician prepares the veneer, which is to be fixed on the incisors with bonding. With the help of the porcelain veneer not only the discoloured teeth can be corrected but also smaller abnormalities.
The porcelain has more positive characteristics. It can be coloured both on the outer and the inner surface, furthermore it has a natural transparency due to which we have an opportunity of creating absolutely individual colours.
The surface and colour of the shell does not change during the years and due to the hardness and steadiness of the material no plaques will occur. This method can be applied at patients as well who have a metal allergy because veneers do not contain any metals.